New PDF release: A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space
By C N Hill
"A Vertical Empire" describes the paintings in rocketry and area learn conducted within the united kingdom within the Fifties and Sixties. At one time, the programme used to be as refined as these within the US and Russia. The tasks have been cancelled one after the other as Britain's makes an attempt to take care of militarily with the 2 superpowers weakened, on account of Treasury strain and the idea that there has been no financial destiny in house expertise. a lot of the fabric during this publication hasn't ever been on hand ahead of, due in part to the 30-Year Rule bearing on govt files, and in part to the delicate army nature of the paintings. The initiatives coated comprise rocket-propelled plane, huge army missiles comparable to the medium variety ballistic missile "Blue Streak", the attempt rocket "Black Knight" and the re-entry experiments it carried, and the satellite tv for pc launcher "Black Arrow". furthermore, proposed tasks which could were constructed from those cars are lined intensive. there's additionally enormous political research of why those tasks have been finally discontinued.
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Extra resources for A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space Programme, 1950-1971
The most common oxidant for rocket motors is liquid oxygen, but alternatives that have been used are nitrogen dioxide (again, not in Britain), nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Kerosene and LOX were used as fuels in another rocket motor intended for a rocket powered manned interceptor, the Avro 720. The engine, called Screamer, designed and built by Armstrong Siddeley Motors, was to be of variable thrust, up to a maximum of 8,0001bf, and was first static tested in March 1954. It was, however, cancelled before being test flown in an aircraft.
If airborne radar and guided weapons are added to the armoury of the fighter, the balance tilts even further away from the bomber. One answer, of course, was to build jet powered bombers. The Air Ministry had been aware of this for some time, and before the war had ended, had issued the Operational Requirements that would lead eventually to the V bombers, which were probably, apart from the development of atomic weapons, the major part of the post war defence programme. Similarly, the Americans, while having pushed their propeller driven designs as far as feasible, were also busy designing jet bombers in the 1950s, culminating in the B52, still in service.
S defence spending. F version was cancelled forthwith. As the White Paper put it: "Work will proceed on the development of a ground-to-air missile defence system, which will in due course replace the manned aircraft of Fighter Command. F was still promised the PI interceptor, or Lightning as it became known in service. 56 A Vertical Empire PI77: front view However, the Navy was still very insistent that they needed the 177, and at the same time, Aubrey Jones, who was Minister of Supply, wanted to keep the project going, as there was German interest in the aircraft.
A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space Programme, 1950-1971 by C N Hill